Books and Special Issues

  • Indigenous Knowledge and Climate Governance: A Sub-Saharan African Perspective

    (1st Edition 2022)

    By Eromose Ebhuoma, Llewellyn Leonard |

    Sustainable Development Goal Series

    The impact of climate change has adversely compromised the livelihoods of African communities who are overwhelmingly dependent on the natural environment for food security. Indigenous Knowledge Systems is a way for African people to adapt to climate change and secure their livelihoods by uniquely applying their ancient knowledge systems. The book provides critical discussions on the linkages between indigenous knowledge, climate change, and governance. Using primarily political and participatory methods, the book explores cases within the region in order to enhance our understanding about the importance of indigenous knowledge systems to combat climate change and the factors that undermine indigenous knowledge from featuring predominately in climate change mitigation and governance.

    There are numerous types of land-related conflicts ranging from ownership, access, use and management. The chapters in this volume capture the strategies put in place by Indigenous peoples in different geographical regions across Southern Africa to adapt and build their resilience to climatic risks, including how collaborations with scientific knowledge have cascaded into building people’s resilience to climatic risks. This volume critically tackles the underlying issues of governance, power and epistemic injustice that influence the exclusion of Indigenous peoples in climate change decision-making at local and national levels.

    The geographic spread of this book is wide and covers cases from Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, and Lesotho as well as regional cases from West, Central, East and Southern Africa. Key insights from this book illuminate issues that could contribute meaningfully towards the actualisation of the 13th Sustainable Development Goal (climate action) in sub-Saharan Africa. This is primarily because Indigenous peoples and climate action are inextricably linked due to their overwhelming dependence on the natural environment for their livelihood.

  • Conservation, Land Conflicts and Sustainable Tourism in Southern Africa

    Contemporary Issues and Approaches

    (1st Edition 2022)

    By Regis Musavengane, Llewellyn Leonard |
    ISBN 9781032037622

    This book examines the nexus between conservation, land conflicts and sustainable tourism approaches in Southern Africa, with a focus on equity, access, restitution and redistribution. While Southern Africa is home to important biodiversity, pristine woodlands and grasslands, and is a habitat for important wildlife species, it is also a land of contestations over its natural resources with a complex historical legacy and a wide variety of competing and conflicting issues surrounding race, cultural and traditional practices and neoliberalism.

    Drawing on insights from conservation, environmental and tourism experts, this volume presents the nexus between land conflicts and conservation in the region. The chapters reveal the hegemony of humans on land and associated resources including wildlife and minerals. By using social science approaches, the book unites environmental, scientific, social and political issues as it is imperative we understand the holistic nature of land conflicts in nature-based tourism. Discussing the management theories and approaches to community-based tourism in communities where there is or were land conflicts is critical to understanding the current state and future of tourism in African rural spaces.

    This volume determines the extent to which land reform impacts community-based tourism in Africa to develop resilient destination strategies and shares solutions to existing land conflicts to promote conservation and nature-based tourism. The book will be of great interest to students, academics, development experts, and policymakers in the field of conservation, tourism geography, sociology, development studies, land use and environmental management and African studies.

  • COVID-19 impacts on tourism: Southern Africa’s experiences

    Editors Regis Musavengane, Llewellyn Leonard

  • Sustainable Urban Tourism in Sub-Saharan Africa Risk and Resilience

    (1st Edition 2021)

    By Llewellyn Leonard, Regis Musavengane, Pius Siakwah
    ISBN 9780367904142

    This book investigates urban tourism development in Sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the challenges and risks involved, but also showcasing the potential benefits. Whilst much is written on Africa’s rural environments, little has been written about the tourism potential of the vast natural, cultural and historical resources in the continent’s urban areas.

    Yet these opportunities also come with considerable environmental, social and political challenges. This book interrogates the interactions between urban risks, tourism and sustainable development in Sub-Saharan African urban spaces. It addresses the underlying issues of governance, power, ownership, collaboration, justice, community empowerment and policies that influence tourism decision-making at local, national and regional levels.

    Interrogating the intricate relationships between tourism stakeholders, this book ultimately reflects on how urban risk can be mitigated, and how sustainable urban tourism can be harnessed for development. The important insights in this book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners across Tourism, Geography, Urban Development, and African Studies.


    This edited volume on Sub-Saharan Africa is extremely timely and welcome and provides a rich source of insights and experiences that will prove extremely valuable for those concerned with tourism and urbanisation both now and in the future. This volume is strongly recommended.” – Professor Michael Hall, Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

    “…Leonard, Musavengane and Siakwah have assembled a rich original collection of theoretical and empirical material which provides a new benchmark for researchers on sustainability and tourism in the global urban South in general and sub-Saharan Africa more specifically.” – Professor Christian M. Rogerson, Research Professor, School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa

    “This book is a highly recommended source for researchers who are interested in urban tourism development in sub-Saharan Africa. The book highlights the challenges and risks involved, but also showcases the potential benefits of tourism on natural, cultural, political, and historical resources of the continent’s urban areas…” – Professor Dogan Gursoy, Taco Bell Distinguished Professor, School of Hospitality Business Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University 

    “…This book is highly recommended as it interrogates these relations in the sub-Saharan African urban spaces. It does this by drawing on themes such as governance, environmental justice, power, ownership, xenophobia, collaboration, empowerment, climate change, human settlements and policies…” – Professor Dimitrios Buhalis, Distinguished Professor, International Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research, Bournemouth University Business School, United Kingdom

  • Environmental Justice, Civil Society and Industrial Risks

    Non Peer Reviewed

    Publication Date: 10 Nov 2009 | ISBN-10: 3838316118
    ISBN-13: 978-3838316116

    This book conceives of South African society as a risk society and seeks to map the extent to which civil society actors’ champion environmental justice in an industrial risk society. It examines the role of civil society actors specifically in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, and their ability to perceive industrial risks and help push grassroots concerns in public policy and development processes in a state that has not completely undergone a movement into a post or late modern society. Under Apartheid government, the urban environment was a means for racist oppression with Blacks sharing their neighbourhoods with polluting industries.

    Under the new democratic government, little may have changed. Government has chosen to engage in a macroeconomic development model concentrated on expanding industrial modes of production. The logic of wealth production has dominated the logic of risk production contributing to increased industrial risks in society. Work includes empirical analysis to explore how civil society champions environmental justice, and will be valuable for those interested in knowing more about environmental justice, industrial risks, governance and development issues.

  • Managing Hospital Waste: A guide for Southern African Health Care Institutions

    (1st Edition 2004)

    By Llewellyn Leonard |
    City Print

    Executive Summary

    Health Care Waste is a mounting problem in South Africa as in many other countries. Health Care Waste problems in South Africa have reached uncontrollable proportions. Desktop studies show almost half of health care waste generated in KwaZulu-Natal alone cannot be accounted for, suggesting that it is being illegally dumped, buried or burnt somewhere, thus affecting the health of people and the environment. Some other common problems connected with health care waste include inadequate waste management, lack of education about the health hazards, insufficient financial and human resources and poor control of waste management.

    Wastes from health care facilities can pose a risk to health care workers, patients and local communities. While there is much concern about the possible spread of disease (especially from contact with “sharps” such as needles), the treatment of those wastes, through incineration, can release an array of hazardous pollutants into the air and water.

    However, it is obvious that the problem of health care waste will not disappear overnight. It is imperative that all stakeholders involved take ownership and responsibility. These include medical practitioners, healthcare administrators, hospital waste collectors, municipalities, waste collection companies, regulatory bodies, government as well as civil society. Just as a chain is strong as the weakest link in it, so all personnel need to be involved. But the prime responsibility lies with the generator of the waste. It was with this idea in mind that groundWork has published this manual, so as to tackle the root of our health care waste problems being experienced.

    It is also important to stress that health care waste at our hospitals is a management problem as opposed to a technological one. Technology, however, is not to be totally dismissed but must be viewed as part of a much larger solution. Training for segregation for all hospital personnel encompassing elimination, reduction, reuse and recycling of materials is the way forward if the problem of health care waste is to be accomplished.

    Once segregation has occurred and a hospital has its proper waste minimization plan in place, can an environmentally friendly alternative technology be considered. However, the continued use of incinerators in many hospitals is attributed by misleading information on this outdated technology. With markets dying in the north for incinerators, industries are therefore pushing their attention to the south. Health care facilities need to adopt more sensible practices if improvements are to be made.

    This manual presents an adequate coverage of the health care waste management and commonly acceptable practices to meet the requirements of existing laws and regulations. A step-by-step process of developing a health care waste environmental management plan is discussed in the manual. Waste prevention and minimization techniques are also presented in an effort to improve healthcare waste handling systems within the healthcare facilities.

    Hospitals and other healthcare establishment have the responsibility of certifying that there are no adverse health and environmental consequences of their handling, treatment and disposal of healthcare waste. Through this manual, healthcare institutions will be able to install a more appropriate waste management system that could provide benefits such as an improved regulatory compliance; protection of human health by reducing the exposure of employees to hazardous waste in the work environment; enhance community relations by demonstrating a commitment to environmental protection; economic benefits resulting from pollution prevention products that reduce and recycle waste; avoidance of long-term liability. Healthcare establishments are the ones responsible for proper management and disposal of the waste they generate and this will increase employee morale resulting from a healthier and safer work environment.

    It is hoped that this manual will help many health care institutions in South Africa towards establishing improved health care waste management practices, which will ultimately contribute towards sustainable development for future generation. The target groups of this manual are individuals and groups responsible for overseeing the health care waste stream. This manual must however not be seen as an end in itself since each hospitals waste management plan will not be identical to another hospitals plan and will need to be implemented accordingly. It is hoped that the experience is rewarding.

    (2004) Managing hospital waste: A guide for Southern African health care institutions, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, Arrow Print, 83 pages.